Fly ash is produced from the burning of pulverized coal in a coal-fired boiler. It is a fine-grained, powdery particulate material that is carried off in the flue gas and normally collected from the flue gas by means of electrostatic precipitators , baghouses, or mechanical collection devices such as cyclones.
Fly ash is commonly used in production of concrete. It is applied as a supplementary cementing material. Initially the idea was to use fly ash for economical reasons – on one hand to utilize fly ash which is an industrial by product, on the other to reduce the amount of costly cement. However, it appears that application of fly ash in concrete has a lot of benefits, mainly by reduction of unwanted hydration heat.
Cement can be replaced with fly ash in concrete. It reacts (Si) with Ca(OH)2 and produces more CSH gel which contributes to strength. With reduced cement, hydration heat will be reduced and hence there is strength gain.
Uses and benefits of fly ash
Fly ash can be a cost-effective substitute for Portland cement. In addition, fly ash could be recognized as an environmentally friendly product because it is a byproduct and has low embodied energy. It is also available in 2 colors, and coloring agents can be added at the job site. In addition, fly ash also requires less water than Portland cement and it is easier to use in cold weather.
Other benefits include :
Types of fly ash :
There are different types of fly ash , depending on its chemical properties, including Class F and Class C , generated by burning black coal and brown coal respectively. Class F and Class C are being utilized in making building materials such as concrete, lightweight aggregate, bricks etc. Also fly ash is used as a material for road construction and earth filled dam construction.
Class F fly ash is available in larger quantities , which is generally low in lime , less than 15%, and contains greater combination of silica , alumina and iron(more than 70%) compared to Class C fly ash. Class F is a solution to a wide range of summer concreting problems and it is often recommended for using where concrete may be exposed to sulphate ions in soil and ground water.
Class C fly ash normally comes from coal which produces an ash with higher lime content, generally more than 15%, often as high as 30%. Also, high Calcium Oxide(CaO) gives Class C unique self hardening characteristics. Class C is mostly used in situations where higher early strengths are important.
|Product||Fly Ash/ Coal Ash|
|Standards||ASTM C618 Class-F, BS EN 450, BS 3892, Class C|
|Packing||1.4 Tons Jumbo bags , 50/40kg bags as per client requirement|
|Monthly capacity||40,000 tons|
|Shipping mode||Containerized or bulk|
Test report of FLY ASH-ASTM C 618
|Sr No||Parametrs||Unit||Result Obtained||Protocol||CAS NO|
|1||Loss on Ignition||%||0.5||ASTM C-311||NA|
|2||Silica as Sio2||%||55.32||ASTM C-311||60676-86-0|
|3||Aluminia as Al2O3||%||21.7||ASTM C-311||1344-28-1|
|4||Titnia as TiO2||%||1.35||ASTM C-311||12137-20-1|
|5||Iron as Fe2O3||%||8.43||ASTM C-311||1309-37-1|
|6||Calcium as CaO||%||4.72||ASTM C-311||1305-78-8|
|7||Magnesium as MgO||%||2.45||ASTM C-311||1309-48-4|
|8||Sodium as Na2O||%||1.86||ASTM C-311||1313-59-3|
|9||Potassium as K2O||%||1.36||ASTM C-311||12136-45-7|
|10||Sulphur Trioxide as SO3||%||0.24||ASTM C-311||7440-38-2|
|11||Manganese as MnO||%||0.15||ASTM C-311||1344-43-0|
|12||Chrolide as CL||%||Less than 0.10||ASTM C-311||16887-00-6|
|13||Residue on 45 Micron seieve||%||15.54||ASTM C-311||NA|
|14||Moisture||%||Less than 0.10||ASTM C-311||7732-18-5|
Test report of FLY ASH-BS 3892-BEIGE
|Sr No||Parametrs||Unit||Result Obtained||Protocol|
|1||Loss on Ignition||%||<1||ASTM C 114-2013|
|2||Silica as Sio2||%||55.13||ASTM C 114-2013|
|3||Aluminia as Al2O3||%||24.45||ASTM C 114-2013|
|4||Titnia as TiO2||%||1.23||ASTM C-314|
|5||Iron as Fe2O3||%||7.43||ASTM C 114-2013|
|6||Calcium as CaO||%||3.54||ASTM C 311|
|7||Magnesium as MgO||%||2.73||ASTM C 311|
|2||Sodium as Na2O||%||0.75||ASTM C 114-2013|
|3||Potassium as K2O||%||1.02||ASTM C 114-2013|
|4||Sulphur Trioxide as SO3||%||0.35||ASTM C 114-2013|
|5||Chrolide as CL||%||0.01||ASTM C 311|
|6||Residue on 45 Micron seieve||%||<12||ASTM C 311|
|7||Moisture||%||<1||ASTM C 311|
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